Illustrated with plans, etc. Benjamin Chapman. save hide report. This thread is archived . In this emergency, Gustavus and Christian joined forces to send an expedition to Stralsund, the last remaining Protestant bastion in Pomerania, which arrived just in time to prevent its capture by Wallenstein (1628). During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary military forces in Europe during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political and religious balance of power in Europe. The disastrous defeat (1626) of Christian IV of Denmark, who had intervened in Germany without such an assurance, justified his caution, but it also made Swedish intervention inevitable. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. But from the point of view of his own country, these achievements were less significant than his domestic labours—his extraordinarily wide-ranging creative work in the fields of administrative organization, economic development, and education. He inherited the Swedish throne in 1611. Jun 8, 2017 - Explore Bill Wilks's board "Gustavus Adolphus" on Pinterest. And the decisions were always his, though they were usually arrived at after intimate consultation with Axel Oxenstierna. He had always insisted that the German Protestant princes must work for their own salvation, and he saw the best hope for their future preservation in the creation of a comprehensive, permanent Corpus Evangelicorum (or Protestant league). Queen Christina, a…, Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (1611–32) had spent most of the 1620s at war with Poland, seeking to acquire territory on the southern shore of the Baltic. His threat to Nürnberg forced Gustavus to leave Bavaria in order to relieve the city. level 1. That conflict, the Thirty Years’ War, saw the most horrific acts of violence, the greatest loss of life, and the greatest suffering among both soldiers and civilians of any of the religious wars of the period. He was determined, therefore, to exploit Russia’s momentary weakness to cut it off from direct maritime contact with the West and to channel Russian trade through Swedish middlemen, thus enriching his impoverished exchequer with tolls and duties. It is thought to have been written by a man in the entourage of Ottavio Piccolomini. That indemnity entailed crushing taxation and, even with the aid of last-minute loans by the Dutch, was not paid off until 1619. Matthäus Merian, Merseburg, 1650. Omissions? Modding. The Polish war was resolved in 1629 by the Truce of Altmark, and Gustavus was at last free to turn his attention to Germany. Gustavus Adolphus - Entrance into the Thirty Years’ War | Britannica This, however, did not happen; for the man who had drawn the charter, the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, became, in fact, the king’s closest collaborator and remained so for the whole of the reign—a great historic partnership in which the temperaments and gifts of each supplemented those of the other. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu “The Thirty Years’ War and Peace of Westphalia” Create and discuss two graphic organizers. Until 1629 Gustavus had always to reckon with the danger of a legitimist invasion from Poland and the attempted restoration of the elder Vasa line. The Council of State became, for the first time, a permanent organ of government able to assume charge of affairs while the king was fighting overseas. The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library. It is also possible that he sought security from dangers which seemed to threaten the Swedish state and the Swedish church; that he considered his actions essentially defensive; and that he had no precise long-range plans, either economic or political, when he landed on German soil. THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR (1618-1648). Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years War mod. In 1627 Gustavus Adolphus , the “Lion of the North”, had compared the revived Roman Catholic Church to the sea … But Adolphus was a great st… The consequences, for Germany and for Europe, extended far beyond the religious field. best. By the Peace of Knäred (1613) Sweden was forced to leave its only North Sea port, Älvsborg, in Danish hands as security for the payment of an enormous war indemnity. discerninghistory.com/2014/05/gustavus-adolphus-thirty-years-war 1 year ago. It is the aforementioned aspects that … “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Victories and Downfall – Part II [Read Part I] This is the recounting of the dramatic life of the “The Golden King” and “The Lion of the North” Gustav Adolf, and the Swedish Empire during stormaktstiden – “the Great Power era”. Citation: C N Trueman "Gustavus Adolphus and Sweden" historylearningsite.co.uk. He found himself in an extraordinarily difficult position. At his death the country was exhausted by constant warfare, the monarchy was generally unpopular, and the accession of a new king seemed to offer the opportunity to extort from the crown guarantees against a recurrence of misgovernment. In the event he took Munich two years later, and although there were many setbacks his successors later threatened Vienna, while at … 2lzy4nme. Not only had Charles placed Sweden in a calamitous situation internationally, but he had left behind him a legacy of domestic troubles. The first decade of the reign, therefore, saw the creation of the Supreme Court (1614) and the establishment of the Treasury and the Chancery as permanent administrative boards (1618), and by the end of the reign an Admiralty and a War Office had been created—each presided over by one of the great officers of state. In 1630 he had defined his aims as security and indemnity, the indemnity to be a cash payment to cover his war expenses, the security to be provided by a permanent Swedish alliance with Pomerania. Thirty Years War: The Swedish Period. Thirty Years’ War was fought in Central Europe from year 1618 to 1648. It seemed that the fate of Germany lay in his hands. From the time of his birth until his coronation, his upbringing involved many lessons in politics, literature, military science, and physical development, making him physically and intellectually … Professor of Modern History, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1954–73. By reducing the size of the tactical unit, by opposing a flexible linear formation to the cumbrous massive formations of his opponents, by solving (at least for his time) the perennial problem of combining infantry and cavalry, missile weapons and shock, and, lastly, by producing the first easily maneuverable light artillery, he completed the transformation of the art of war begun by the Dutch commander Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange, earlier in the century. His territorial ambitions had embroiled him in wars with Poland, and he feared that Ferdinand's maritime designs might threaten Sweden's mastery of the Baltic. He also promoted the Swedish economy through immigration and the infusion of foreign capital. Historians are divided on why Gustavus chose to join the war, which had begun as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire (now Germany), following the election of Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II who was trying to impose his religion on … An older generation of historians saw him, as his contemporaries did, simply as the Protestant Hero, the “Lion of the North”; later, he was viewed as having been moved by purely political considerations; and in recent days he has been characterized as an economic imperialist who sought to remedy Sweden’s poverty by seizing control of the whole Baltic coastline, and thus to monopolize trade between Russia and western Europe. Both council and Riksdag were identified with the king’s policies, not least because of Gustavus’s brilliant gift for expounding them: his speeches reveal him as a master of debate and an orator of extraordinary eloquence and force. From this moment, full-scale involvement in the German war became simply a question of time. As Gustav II Adolf (King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden) waited in Werben, … Military History: Aug 17, 2016: Gustavus Adolphus does not die at the Battle of Lutzen. An ordinance of 1617 fixed the number of estates in the Riksdag at four (nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants) and regulated its procedures on a basis that lasted until 1866. Create a second … Hans Georg von Arnim, the military commander of the Protestant troops, realized that he was militarily powerless against the superiority of the enemy and asked – or compelled, to be more specific – his employer John George of Saxony on September 11, 1631, to form an … As the war with Denmark was as good as lost, he set about to end it on the best possible terms. The impact Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War had on the broader contexts of the conflict between Catholics and Protestants, European power politics and the European balance of power, and the new style of warfare introduced by Gustavus made the conflict much more than the regional topic it has been treated as by historians. Gustavus’s creation of the Gymnasia in the 1620s gave Sweden, for the first time, an effective provision for secondary education; his splendid munificence to the University of Uppsala gave it the financial security that was essential to its development; and his foundation of the University of Tartu provided the first centre for higher learning in the Baltic provinces. Victories in two of the wars brought new territory, expanding the Swedish empire. The brilliant crossing of the Lech River in Bavaria, in the face of Tilly’s armies, opened the way to the occupation of Munich. He spent much of his life at war. This series offers … Updates? "Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War." Moved also by his Protestantism, he declared against the emperor and was supported by an understanding with … It was the struggle to secure religious liberty,–a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. After Gustavus was killed at Lützen (1632), the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna financed the Heilbronn League of German Protestants (1633), which broke up after a heavy military defeat at Nördlingen in 1634. Charles’s rule had been arbitrary and violent; his religious views (he was suspected of leaning toward Calvinism) had involved him in an incessant struggle with the Lutheran church. As a military commander, he was responsible for military innovations that marked an epoch in the history of the art of war. In this improved climate it was possible to undertake measures of sweeping reform. 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