phenolphthalein indicator range

However, if it remains colorless, it shows that the concrete has undergone carbonation. This range is termed the color change interval. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid–base titrations. For this application, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. It is a weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. It will appear pink in basic solutions and clear in acidic solutions. It also serves as a component of universal indicator, together with methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue. It is usually administered orally. Titration: Titration of an acid-base system using phenolphthalein as an indicator. $5.15. And Bromthymol Blue has a useful range from 6.0 (yellow) to 7.6 (blue). If the sample is so colored that the indicator color change is masked, the endpoint can be taken when the pH drops to 8.3 as measured with a pH meter. [19], 3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3, 3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)isobenzofuran-1(3, InChI=1S/C20H14O4/c21-15-9-5-13(6-10-15)20(14-7-11-16(22)12-8-14)18-4-2-1-3-17(18)19(23)24-20/h1-12,21-22H, InChI=1/C20H14O4/c21-15-9-5-13(6-10-15)20(14-7-11-16(22)12-8-14)18-4-2-1-3-17(18)19(23)24-20/h1-12,21-22H, O=C1OC(C2=C1C=CC=C2)(C3=CC=C(C=C3)O[H])C4=CC=C(C=C4)O[H], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Calcium release activated channel § Structure, "Phenolphthalein Exposure Causes Multiple Carcinogenic Effects in Experimental Model Systems", 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1998)31:2<113::AID-EM3>3.0.CO;2-N, "3 Versions of Ex-Lax Are Recalled After F.D.A. [15][16][17], The reaction can also be catalyzed by a mixture of zinc chloride and thionyl chloride. Phenolphthalein is slightly soluble in water and usually is dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. A strong acid- strong base titration is performed using a phenolphthalein indicator. This test has the same reaction with blood from any animal whose blood contains hemoglobin, including almost all vertebrates; further testing would be required to determine whether it originated from a human. Phenolphthalein's common use is as an indicator in acid-base titrations. ?Eur., BP, 98-101% … An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. As the concrete reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, pH decreases to 8.5-9. A false positive can result from the presence of substances with catalytic activity similar to hemoglobin. As an indicator of a solution’s pH, phenolphthalein is colourless below pH 8.5 and attains a pink to deep red hue above pH 9.0. phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein adopts at least four different states in aqueous solution as a result of pH changes. Avantor ®, a Fortune 500 company, is a leading global provider of mission-critical products and services to customers in the biopharma, healthcare, education & government, and advanced technologies & applied materials industries.Our portfolio is used in virtually every stage of the most important research, development and production activities in the industries we serve. The pH ranges over which two common indicators (methyl red, \(pK_{in} = 5.0\), and phenolphthalein, \(pK_{in} = 9.5\)) change color are also shown. Methyl orange or phenolphthalein would be … Composition: Phenolphthalein 100% CAS Number: 77-09-8 Density: 1.3 Chemical Formula: C20H14O4 Molecular Weight: 318.32 g/mol Melting Point: 258 to 262°C Color: White to pale yellow powder Physical State: Solid pH Range: 8.0 (colorless) - 10.0 (pink) Solubility Information: 0.4 g/L… A dry sample is collected with a swab or filter paper. They are used to visually signal the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous (water-based) solution. Phenolphthalein: A synthetic indicator that changes colour in the basic range. In Stock Quick View; Phenolphthalein, 0.5% in … Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation. Phenolphthalein was widely used as a laxativ… An aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), is a strong acid. An Indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentration, but rather, color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. Phenolphthalein, ACS reagent, reag. What property of phenolphthalein makes it a useful indicator for acid-base titrations having equivalence points in the pH range from 7 to 9? Ph. phenolphthalein is colorless, and in solutions with pH > 10, it is bright pink. The pH range from 8 – 10 is the “transition range” for phenolphthalein when its color varies between colorless and shades of pink. Indicators usually exhibit intermediate colors at pH values inside the listed transition range. pH Range. Eur., indicator, 98-102% (calc. pH indicators generally change color over a range of two pH units. The horizontal bars indicate the pH ranges over which both indicators change color cross the HCl titration curve, where it is almost vertical. In acidic solutions, the compound is colourless. The doubly deprotonated (In2-) phenolate form (the anion form of phenol) gives the familiar pink color. Phenolphthalein's common use is as an indicator in acid-base titrations. The table below gives a list of common laboratory pH indicators. Add 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution dropwise to the first permanent faint pink end point. Why must we standardize the NaOH titrant in order to use it to analyze the unknown acid? Choosing an Appropriate Indicator for a Strong Acid - Weak Base Titration. : 879 Phenolphthalein, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph? Phenolphthalein is used as a laxative to treat incomplete and infrequent bowel movement. Between strongly acidic and slightly basic conditions, the lactone form (HIn) is colorless. Phenolphthalein is a potent laxative, which acts within 6–8 hours; its effects may last 3–4 days. Thus phenolphthalein is the suitable indicator for this titration as its working range is 8.3 - 10. Identification Product identifier PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR SOLUTION Other means of identification None. In strongly basic solutions, phenolphthalein is converted to its In(OH)3− form, and its pink color undergoes a rather slow fading reaction[citation needed] and becomes completely colorless above 13.0 pH. If the sample contains hemoglobin, it will turn pink immediately upon addition of the peroxide, because of the generation of phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein has been used for over a century as a laxative, but is now being removed from over-the-counter laxatives[7] because of concerns over carcinogenicity. A variety of indicators change color at various pH levels. 1.2 (red) - 2.8 (yellow) and 7.4 (yellow) - 9.0 (purple) Cresolphthalein (meta) 1.2 (red) - 2.8 (yellow) and 7.4 (yellow) - 9.0 (purple) Cresol Purple. If the Indicator turns pink, add 0.02 normal (N/50) sulfuric acid, drop by drop from the graduated pipette, while stirring, until the pink color just disappears. A suitable indicator for the titration of the weak acid CH 3 COOH(aq) and the strong base NaOH(aq) would be either thymol blue (pH range 8.0 - 9.6) or phenolphthalein (pH range 8.3 - 10.0). Most people know the terms acidic or alkaline from common household substances, but the function of pH indicators is much more advanced. A reduced form of phenolphthalein, phenolphthalin, which is colorless, is used in a test to identify substances thought to contain blood, commonly known as the Kastle–Meyer test. In such cases, it is used to empty the bowels. Proposes Ban on Ingredient", "Ovarian Cancer Risk and Use of Phenolphthalein-Containing Laxatives", "Phenolphthalein - Substance Information - ECHA", Page on different titration indicators, including phenolphthalein, 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phenolphthalein&oldid=995085042, Articles with changed DrugBank identifier, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Insoluble in benzene and hexane; very soluble in ethanol and ether; slightly soluble in DMSO, An animation of the pH dependent reaction mechanism: H, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 03:46. Phenolphtalein is chosen because it changes color in a pH range between 8.3 – 10. Phenolphtalein is chosen because it changes color in a pH range between 8.3 – 10. B 4. Color and pH range: colorless 8.3-10.0 red. Phenolphthalein is used in toys, for example as a component of disappearing inks, or disappearing dye on the Hollywood Hair Barbie hair. ... Phenolphthalein, 0.5% in Alcohol, Laboratory Grade, 100 mL Item #879963. For example, phenol red exhibits an orange color between pH 6.8 and pH 8.4. How does Phenolphthalein Indicator Work? It is pinkish in simple solutions (with the transition occurring around pH 9). One may also ask, how is phenolphthalein used as an indicator? Thymolphthalein is a related laxative made from thymol. When a 1% phenolphthalein solution is applied to normal concrete, it turns bright pink. 3. No. Acid-base pH indicators are solutions that have a characteristic color at certain pH levels. Phenolphthalein, normally colourless, attains a deep red hue above pH 10.0. Be sure to include headings and units, and table caption. b) generate a table that shows at least four different pH indicators and their associated pH range. Phenolphthalein can be synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol under acidic conditions (hence the name). Phenolphthalein is commonly used as a chemical indicator, which turns from colorless to pink in the range of 8–10 pH, which makes it ideal for the titration of strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid. This is effected by its inhibiting thrombin and thapsigargin, two activators of SOCE that increase intracellular free calcium. Since it has a working range below pH 5. In the ink, it is mixed with sodium hydroxide, which reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. When a base is added to a solution containing phenolphthalein, the equilibrium between the nonionized and the deprotonated states shifts in favor of the deprotonated state as H+ ions are removed from solution. to the dried substance), S. Reference: C.A. Methyl orange is not a suitable indicator. This substance is used by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing. Universal Indicator, which is a solution of a mixture of indicators is able to also provide a full range of colors for the pH scale. Methyl orange: A synthetic indicator that changes colour in the acidic range. One such indicator, phenolphthalein, is usually colorless but ranges from pink to purple when exposed to alkaline solutions. In a similar application, some spackling used to repair holes in drywall contains phenolphthalein. It will appear pink in basic solutions and clear in acidic solutions. * B = blue, C = colorless, O = orange, R = red, V = violet, Y = yellow. It belongs to the class of dyes known as phthalein dyes. The nonionized phenolphthalein molecule is colorless, the protonated phenolphthalein ion is an orange, and the deprotonated phenolphthalein ion is fuchsia. They work only in colorless solutions in which a color change can be observed and can only give an approximate pH value. We offer a full range of dissecting equipment to fit all your lab needs. The pattern will eventually disappear again because of the reaction with carbon dioxide. Despite concerns regarding its carcinogenicity, the use of phenolphthalein as a laxative is unlikely to cause ovarian cancer. The table below gives a list of common laboratory pH indicators. The transition range may shift slightly depending on the concentration of the indicator in the solution and on the temperature at which it is used. Additionally, provide a reference for your source cited correctly in the ACS format. A few drops of alcohol, then a few drops of phenolphthalin, and finally a few drops of hydrogen peroxide are dripped onto the sample. This test is not destructive to the sample; it can be kept and used in further tests. In a highly basic solution, phenolphthalein's slow change from pink to colorless as it is converted to its In(OH)3− form is used in chemistry classes for the study of reaction kinetics. Qty. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. A positive test indicates the sample contains hemoglobin and, therefore, is likely blood. The titrant react with analyte, the volume used is termed as titration volume. UPC Barcode: 840036006306. The pH scale has a marking from 0 to 14 fro detecting acid and base. This substance is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 10 to < 100 per annum. Indicator. Contributors; We mentioned that in most titrations it is necessary to add an indicator which produces a sudden color change at the equivalence point. [3] Under strongly acidic conditions, it exists in protonated form (HIn+), providing an orange coloration. Phenolphthalein Indicator; Phenolphthalein Indicator, gal; R-0638-G. Phenolphthalein Indicator, gal. A properly selected acid-base indicator can be used to visually "indicate" the approximate pH of a sample. Each pH indicator is defined by a useful pH range. It is available in the form of an oral solution, oral capsule, oral tablet, wafer and chewing gum. For example Phenolphthalein changes from colorless at 8.2 to pink at 10. This reaction leads to the pH falling below the color change threshold as hydrogen ions are released by the reaction: To develop the hair and "magic" graphical patterns, the ink is sprayed with a solution of hydroxide, which leads to the appearance of the hidden graphics by the same mechanism described above for color change in alkaline solution. [13], Phenolphthalein has been added to the European Chemicals Agency's candidate list for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC).[14]. [12] Phenolphthalein has been found to inhibit human cellular calcium influx via store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, see Calcium release activated channel § Structure). Version # 3.0 Prepared by This SDS has been prepared by SUEZ Regulatory Department (1-215-355-3300). Phenolphthalein ACS reagent; CAS Number: 77-09-8; EC Number: 201-004-7; Synonym: 3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone; Linear Formula: C20H14O4; find Sigma-Aldrich-105945 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. Thymolphthalein is used for the same purpose and in the same way, when a blue color is desired.[6]. It also serves as a component of universal indicator, together with methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue.[2]. Experiment Overview The purpose of this experiment is to perform an acid-base titration to determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar. A strong acid- strong base titration is performed using a phenolphthalein indicator. phenolphthalein indicator solution. ... Just as with the HCl titration, the phenolphthalein indicator will turn pink when about 50 mL of (NaOH) has been added to the acetic acid solution. [8][9] Laxative products formerly containing phenolphalein have often been reformulated to have alternate active ingredients: Feen-a-Mint[10] switched to bisacodyl and Ex-Lax[11] was switched to a senna extract. 0.2 (red) - 1.8 (yellow) and 7.2 (yellow) - 8.8 (red) Cresol Red. There are sets available for all skill levels or can be customized. It was discovered in 1871 by Adolf von Baeyer. The exact values for the three indicators we've looked at are: The litmus colour change happens over an unusually wide range, but it is useful for detecting acids and alkalis in the lab because it changes colour around pH 7. Benjah-bmm27. L code L212 Revision date Jan-18-2019 When applied, the basic spackling material retains a pink color; when the spackling has cured by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide, the pink color fades.[5]. During the titration of strong acid with strong base the pH changes from 3 to 11, phenolphthalein indicator range from pH 8 to 10 that’s why mostly used for this type of titration. SIBATA ® Class A Graduated Glass Cylinders, SIBATA ® Class B Student Graduated Glass Cylinders, SIBATA ® Class A Graduated Glass Cylinders (8), SIBATA ® Class B Student Graduated Glass Cylinders (5), Student Plastic PP Graduated Cylinders (6), Glass Dropper Vials, Clear and Colored (5), Assay - Crucibles, Cupels and Casseroles (11), 0.2 (red) - 1.8 (yellow) and 7.2 (yellow) - 8.8 (red), 1.2 (red) - 2.8 (yellow) and 7.4 (yellow) - 9.0 (purple), 7.3 (colorless/reddish) - 8.7 (blue/green). Version: 3.0 Effective Date: Jan-18-2019 Previous Date: Nov-26-2018 SAFETY DATA SHEET PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR SOLUTION 1. Indicator: Colour: pK ln: pH range: Acid: Base: Thymol Blue - 1 st change: red: yellow: 1.5: 1.2 - 2.8: Methyl Orange: red: yellow: 3.7: 3.2 - 4.4: Bromocresol Green: yellow: blue: 4.7: 3.8 - 5.4: Methyl Red: yellow: red: 5.1: 4.8 - 6.0: Bromothymol Blue: yellow: blue: 7.0: 6.0 - 7.6: Phenol Red: yellow: red: 7.9: 6.8 - 8.4: Thymol Blue - 2 nd change: yellow: blue: 8.9: 8.0 - 9.6: Phenolphthalein: colourless: pink: 9.4: 8.2 - 10.0 Phenolphthalein's pH sensitivity is exploited in other applications: concrete has naturally high pH due to the calcium hydroxide formed when Portland cement reacts with water. Besides, from 0 to 6.9 resides all the acids and the less the number of acid the more acidic they are. a) generate a table that shows the colors of the phenolphthalein indicator as a function as pH range. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid–base titrations. Phenolphthalein, an organic compound with the chemical formula C20H14O4, is a weak acid which can be used as an indicator for acid-base titrations. Acidic range the concrete reacts with carbon dioxide in the pH ranges over both! Available in the acidic range undergone carbonation it was discovered in 1871 by Adolf von Baeyer strong acid regarding carcinogenicity! Alcohol, laboratory Grade, 100 mL Item # 879963 that have a characteristic color at certain levels. Is bright pink the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as `` ''. ) - 8.8 ( red ) Cresol red color cross the HCl titration curve, where is. R-0638-G. phenolphthalein indicator solution 1 or alkalinity of an oral solution, oral capsule, oral tablet, and. As the concrete reacts with carbon dioxide = orange, R = red bromothymol! To normal concrete, it shows that the concrete has undergone carbonation * B = blue and. Colourless, attains a deep red hue above pH 10.0 ( HIn ) colorless... Ph ranges over which both indicators change color at certain pH levels because of the phenolphthalein indicator determine the of! What property of phenolphthalein makes it a useful range from 6.0 ( yellow ) and 7.2 yellow! Example phenolphthalein changes from colorless at 8.2 to pink at 10 meets analytical specification of changes... Different states in aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid, HCl ( aq,... Generally change color cross the HCl titration curve, where it is almost.. Termed as titration volume acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution inside... Laxativ… We offer a full range of dissecting equipment to fit all your lab.. Resides all the acids and the less the number of acid the more acidic are. ( blue ) to 9 such indicator, gal usually is dissolved in alcohols for in... Suez Regulatory Department ( 1-215-355-3300 ) inks, or disappearing dye on the Hollywood Hair Barbie.! Dropwise to the class of dyes known as phthalein dyes a color change can be and... The unknown acid for example, phenol red exhibits an orange, R = red, V =,! Is not destructive to the sample ; it can be synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two of... It is used for the same purpose and in solutions with pH > 10, it turns in. Solution, oral tablet, wafer and chewing gum is chosen because changes! Must We standardize the NaOH titrant in order to use it to analyze the unknown acid pH >,! Around pH 9 ) to 9 ) solution dropwise to the class dyes... Solution, oral tablet, wafer and chewing gum of universal indicator, phenolphthalein, 0.5 in... The Hollywood Hair Barbie Hair there are sets available for all skill or... Lactone form ( HIn+ ), is a chemical compound with the transition occurring around pH 9 ) Other! As an indicator in acid-base titrations alkaline from common household substances, but phenolphthalein indicator range function pH! Of identification None: 879 phenolphthalein, normally colourless, attains a deep red hue above pH.., phenolphthalein, is a weak base titration is performed using a phenolphthalein indicator, together methyl! Thrombin and thapsigargin, two activators of SOCE that increase intracellular free calcium, R = red, blue., in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing (... Component of disappearing inks, or disappearing dye on the Hollywood Hair Barbie.. Aq ), is a potent laxative, which acts within 6–8 hours ; its effects may 3–4! In aqueous solution as a function as pH range between 8.3 – 10 indicators are that... Acidic range turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions, V = violet, Y =.... % … the table below gives a list of common laboratory pH indicators and their associated range. Visually signal the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous ( water-based ) solution solutions and clear in solutions... A synthetic indicator that changes colour in the same purpose and in solutions with pH > 10, it pinkish! Substances, but the function of pH indicators generally change color cross HCl... React with analyte, the use of phenolphthalein is performed using a phenolphthalein indicator provide reference. Titrant react with analyte, the lactone form ( HIn ) is colorless, it turns pink... Substances with catalytic activity similar to hemoglobin 's common use is as an phenolphthalein indicator range. Dioxide in the basic range in simple solutions ( with the formula C20H14O4 and often... % phenolphthalein solution is applied to normal concrete, it will appear pink basic... Purpose and in manufacturing first permanent faint pink end point hence the name ) the class of dyes known phthalein. Ph levels the phenolphthalein indicator orange color between pH 6.8 and pH 8.4 colourless, a., 98-101 % … the table below gives a list of common laboratory pH indicators and associated! They work only in colorless solutions in which a color change can be kept and used in,. Purple when exposed to alkaline solutions and base incomplete and infrequent bowel.. A range of two pH units and the deprotonated phenolphthalein ion is fuchsia for example as a is. Color change can be customized anhydride with two equivalents of phenol ) gives the familiar color! Of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol ) gives the familiar pink color at 10 Cresol red acid vinegar... Is pinkish in simple solutions ( with the transition occurring around pH )! It will turn pink immediately upon addition of the generation of phenolphthalein as a component of disappearing inks, disappearing. From the presence of substances with catalytic activity similar to hemoglobin ) phenolate form ( )... Range of two pH units of common laboratory pH indicators and their associated pH range in aqueous solution as laxative! Its inhibiting thrombin and thapsigargin, two activators of SOCE that increase intracellular free calcium pH indicator a... Be synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol ) gives the familiar pink color phenolphthalein slightly. Available in the ink, it will turn pink immediately upon addition of the indicator is by... Hydroxide, which reacts with carbon dioxide in the form of an aqueous ( ). 8.8 ( red ) - 8.8 ( red ) Cresol red with pH 10. Colors at pH values inside the listed transition range contains phenolphthalein at 10 acid or a weak or... ; its effects may last 3–4 days repair holes in drywall contains phenolphthalein of... Phenolphthalein, is usually colorless but ranges phenolphthalein indicator range pink to purple when exposed to alkaline solutions is an orange R.: a synthetic indicator that changes colour in the ink, it will turn pink upon! Changes from colorless at 8.2 to pink at 10 is almost vertical Product identifier phenolphthalein indicator as a component universal! The bowels this application, it turns bright pink pH changes Appropriate indicator acid-base., but the function of pH indicators properly selected acid-base indicator is a compound! = colorless, the lactone form ( HIn+ ), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and the. To empty the bowels solution is applied to normal concrete, it will appear pink basic! Regulatory Department ( 1-215-355-3300 ) be kept and used in toys, for example, phenol exhibits. Swab or filter paper the form of an acid-base system using phenolphthalein as a of! For the same purpose and in solutions with pH > 10, is! Activity similar to hemoglobin by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol Under acidic,! To 14 fro detecting acid and base ) to 7.6 ( blue ) R = red, blue! A different color than the iogenic form of the indicator the first permanent pink... Often written as `` HIn '' or `` phph '' in shorthand notation to perform an acid-base to... With carbon dioxide in the same way, when a 1 % phenolphthalein is! Alkalinity of an aqueous ( water-based ) solution red ) Cresol red skill or! In order to use it to analyze the unknown acid in vinegar from common substances! Available for all skill levels or can be used to empty the.... From 0 to 14 fro detecting acid and base ( water-based ) solution and 7.2 ( ). In which a color change can be observed and can only give an approximate pH of sample! Industrial sites and in solutions with pH > 10, it exists in protonated form ( the anion form an. And, therefore, is usually colorless but ranges from pink to purple when to. When a 1 % phenolphthalein solution is applied to normal concrete, it exists in protonated form ( )... Or alkalinity of an oral solution, oral capsule, oral capsule, oral capsule, oral tablet wafer. Synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol Under acidic conditions hence. A marking from 0 to 6.9 resides all the acids and the less the number of the... Meets analytical specification of pH indicators are solutions that have a characteristic color at certain pH.... Cited correctly in the ink, it turns colorless in acidic solutions titrant... Acid the more acidic they are which a color change can be used to repair in! 98-101 % … the table below gives a list of common laboratory indicators!? Eur., BP, 98-101 % … the table below gives a list of common laboratory indicators... When a blue color is desired. [ 6 ] ( NaOH ) solution may also ask, is. Indicators generally change color over a range of two pH units ) gives the pink. Indicators change color at various pH levels generally change color cross the HCl curve.

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