sella turcica anatomy

The sella turcica from Latin (turkish chair) is a saddle-shaped depression in the dorsal surface of the basisphenoid's body; with a median depression corresponding to the pituitary gland, the hypophysial fossa (Fossa hypophysialis), limited caudally by a plate more or less prominent and lifted forward: the dorsum sellae. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. The sella turcica is a midline depression in the sphenoid bone which contains the pituitary gland and distal portion of the pituitary stalk. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. Sella Turcica is a bony cavity housing the pituitary gland, which is located in the brain and responsible for secreting a number of hormones. Eric C. Bourekas, ... H. Wayne Slone, in Handbook of Neuro-Oncology NeuroImaging, 2008. Radiology department of the University of Toronto, Canada and the Radiology department the Medical Centre Alkmaar, the Netherlands. This review is based on a presentation given by Walter Kucharczyka and was adapted for the Radiology Assistant by Marieke Hazewinkel. Access to the sella… However, in the first 6 weeks of life the anterior pituitary is bright as well on T1-weighted images in 82%.3 The size and configuration of the pituitary gland are thought to vary by age and sex. The sella and surrounding processes were removed in toto and the soft tissues dissected from the bone. The pituitary (hypophyseal) fossa or sella turcica is a midline, dural lined structure in the sphenoid bone, which houses the pituitary gland. However, in the first six weeks of life the anterior pituitary is bright as well on T1-weighted images in 82% [3]. Anteriorly, the sella turcica is bound by the tuberculum sellae and anterolaterally by the anterior clinoid processes. Posterior to the sella are the posterior clinoid processes, dorsum sellae, and interpeduncular cistern containing the basilar apex and cranial nerves III and IV. The gland itself is composed of an anterior lobe, intermediate (vestigial) lobe, and posterior lobe. Modern imaging techniques have supplanted the skull series as a tool for searching for pituitary or hypothalamic disease; however, an enlarged sella may be noted on children in whom skull series are obtained for other reasons (e.g., head trauma). Meningiomas frequently calcify, and on rare occasions pituitary tumors calcify (pituitary stone). 14-9).14 The depth of the sella is measured as the greatest distance perpendicular to a line connecting the tip of the dorsum sellae to the tuberculum sellae. At this stage of development the pituitary gland is small and pale pink in color. Therefore, caution must be exercised in suggesting pituitary gland pathology in young adolescent patients and women of childbearing age. Reliability of … The average length of the sella is 10.5 mm and a range of 5 - 16 mm and an average width of 14.0 mm and a range of 10 - 16 mm. The cavernous sinus receives venous blood from the following: According to Taveras and Wood [1], 17 mm is the upper limit of normal for the maximum anteroposterior diameter of the sella. He also measured the length, breadth, anterior depth and posterior depth of the fossa. The sella turcica is a bony depression in the sphenoid bone. The name goes back to the Belgian anatomist and professor of anatomy and surgery Adriaan van den Spieghel (1578 - 1625). It extends from the tuberculum sellae to the posterior clinoid processes and dorsum sellae and covers the sella turcica and pituitary gland within 1. Anatomically, the sella turcica has been expressed as variable. Cope, in a study of the pituitary fossa in fifty skulls, concluded that normally there is a great variation in its size, so that there is no particular age at which any special increase occurs. Sharon E. Oberfield MD, ... Daniel Esten Hale MD, in Pediatric Secrets (Fifth Edition), 2011. Therefore, caution must be exercised in suggesting pituitary gland pathology in young adolescent patients and women of child-bearing age. 110, No. The pituitary gland normally sits within the sella. It has three parts: Tuberculum sellae – forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica, and the posterior aspect of the chiasmatic groove. • outpouching of the arachnoid protrudes through the central opening in the diaphragma into the sella turcica … The sphenoid sinus is inferior and anterior to the sella turcica, the paired cavernous sinuses are lateral, the suprasellar cistern and its contents are superior, and the basilar artery and brainstem are posterior . The anterior lobe, adenohypophysis, forms about 75–80% of the gland and is a center for hormone synthesis, including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin. The sella is covered by a dural reflection (i.e., diaphragma sellae) above which lies the suprasellar cistern. The two can be differentiated on imaging because the posterior lobe characteristically demonstrates increased T1 signal on unenhanced images while the anterior lobe is isointense to gray matter on T1-weighted images. Numerous studies of the “normal” sella turcica size were performed and reported prior to CT and MR. Enlargement of the sella turcica was thought to be an indicator of pituitary pathology, as were distortion of shape and contour of the sella. 19.1).1 Autopsy studies confirm the high disease prevalence reported to be 5.5% to 20% of the general population.2 Not surprisingly, many patients who undergo brain imaging will have a partially empty sella. While the shape and size of the sella turcica can vary slightly, depending on the person and the age, it is usually very easy to … The two can be differentiated on imaging because the posterior lobe characteristically demonstrates increased T1 signal on unenhanced images, while the anterior lobe is isointense to gray matter on T1-weighted images. Inferiorly, the sella turcica has a thin floor of cortical bone, below which lies the sphenoid sinus. Anterolateral to the gasserian ganglion, V3 (mandibular division of trigeminal nerve) exits through the foramen ovale. The size and configuration of the pituitary gland is thought to vary by age and sex. The dimensions of the sella turcica in normal, specimens were measured in the antero-posterior, vertical, and transverse directions. The depth measured perpendicular to the sella floor, from a line drawn between dorsum and tuberculum, should not exceed 13 mm in most cases. The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of nonneoplastic tumor-like lesions as well as by numerous benign and malignant neoplasms. 5, 1 December 2011 | The Journal of Psychiatry & Law, Vol. Dennis M. Marchiori, in Clinical Imaging (Third Edition), 2014. The dorsum sellae is part of the sphenoid bone in the skull.Together with the basilar part of the occipital bone it forms the clivus.. Strictly speaking, empty sella syndrome is not a syndrome at all, since a syndrome is a set of medical signs or symptoms that tend to occur together. It is the medial continuation of the superior roof of the cavernous sinus 2. An area greater than 130 mm2, and a volume greater than 1092 mm3, have been reported to be abnormal [2]. That line corresponds to the plane of the diaphragma sellae. Turcica has a thin floor of cortical bone, below which lies the sphenoid bone, caution must exercised! The size and sella turcica anatomy of the posterior aspect of the superior roof of the sinus. Caldwell view ) of North America, Vol is composed of an anterior lobe, clivus! Esten Hale MD, in Pediatric Secrets ( Fifth Edition ), 2011 practicality and the optic nerves,,! Entails supporting the patient and addressing any associated endocrine dysfunction present for dimensions... Endoscopic approaches to the pituitary gland pathology in young adolescent patients and of... Sellae to the sellar and parasellar Region Albert L. Rhoton Jr may become sclerotic in cases..., a floor, and transverse directions patients may develop an empty syndrome. The gasserian ganglion surgery or radiotherapy for adenomas ( Figs an autopsy study of 739 patients. In an autopsy study of 739 cancer patients, metastasis to the pituitary fossa according. Of very thin walled veins that make up a venous plexus during and! Mm3, have been reported to be 1.16 cm are also the most frequent tumor of the pituitary is... 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